Gawler Thematic History - Local Industries and Commerce
|Type of thing||Government|
|Date made or found||2020
Developing Local Industries and Commerce
In its first decade of settlement, commerce in Gawler took the form of modest businesses servicing specific local needs. By the end of the first year, Gawler boasted "one very good inn, one public house, police barracks, two smiths shops, six dwelling houses and 34 inhabitants." Over the next five years a number of small general stores and blacksmiths shops and a butcher were established and various tradesmen had set up within the township. 42
By the mid-1840s, industries began to develop in response to needs of local pastoralists and farmers. In 1845 pioneer Stephen King built a steam-powered flour mill (Victoria Mill) to handle the demand for grinding cereals grown locally. In 1847, its ownership moved to Mr W Duffield who extended the premises in 1848 and again in 1853. Its increased capacity at this time enabled the grinding of 25 tons of flour a day and the storage of 10,000 bushels of wheat. and the mill occupied nearly the whole block bounded by Jacob, Cameron, Todd and Dundas Streets.
In 1847 another pioneer, John Reid, established with Patrick Devlin a boiling-down works in response to a dramatic fall in the market price for stock. In December 1847 the town was also recorded as possessing two breweries. 43
In 1848 James Martin opened a workshop to manufacture bullock drays and agricultural implements, establishing the basis of what was to become Gawler's largest industry and the prototype of industrial activity in the township for the subsequent half century. With Thomas Loutit, he built the Phoenix Foundry on Murray Street and they subsequently expanded into heavy industrial machinery manufacture; mining and ore-processing machinery steam locomotives and rolling stock and smelters for the mines of Broken Hill and the Western Australian goldfields. 44
Other ventures in direct response to colonial development in agriculture and mining included the establishment of the Union Mill at the southern end of Murray Street by Harrison Bros. in 1853 and its purchase and expansion by Walter Duffield in 1863 and the erection of a new Victoria Mill at Gawler West (Eighteenth Street) in 1868 following the destruction by fire in 1867 of the original Victoria Mill established by King in 1845. By the 1870’s, these operations were the largest employers of labour in the town and had contributed largely to its growing reputation. 45
However, attempts to operate a tannery in 1853 and a tweed factory late in 1863 were unsuccessful and William Square's soap factory, established in the mid-1850s and apparently operated from the rear of the Globe Hotel (of which Square was the licensee 1853-58) ceased operations in 1864. Fotheringham's brewery (established in Julian Terrace in 1854) and a timber yard and saw mill established by Pearce, Wincey & Co. in 1864 to service local demand were active, as were the (coachbuilding) workshop and paint shop of Swann and Ivett in Tod Street; the saw mills and timber yards and blacksmith's shop of Duffield & Co. in Jacob Street; the brick kilns of Busbridge and Bright in Wright Street (established 1857), of Bright and Weaver in Paxton Street (1866) and of Samuel Snell in Howard Street; and the lime kilns of James Davies in Bertha. No less than seven wheat stores, one in King Street, one on Lyndoch Road and the remainder along Murray Street, flourished throughout the 1860s as a result of the growing northern agricultural activity. 46
Other machinery businesses were expanded, notably those of John Jones, wheelwright and blacksmith in Murray Street, established in the 1850s, and John Allen, a blacksmith established in 1852 also in Murray Street. A third mill, the Albion Mill, was established by James Dawson in Cowan Street in 1868 and a second foundry, the Eagle Foundry on King Street by David Thomson in 1870, specialised in the manufacture of ploughshares and of castings for agricultural implement makers and employing some 20 men by 1880.
The flour mills experienced a boom in activity in the 1870s. Duffield's new Victoria Mill (rebuilt in Gawler West in February 1877 following the destruction by fire in 1876) had in 1880 a weekly grinding capacity of 11,000 bushels and the Union a grinding capacity equivalent to 1,000 bags of flour.
James Dawson's Albion Mill, though employing less men than Duffield's operations had a similar grinding capacity to the Victoria and enormous storage capacities and in 1878 Dawson won the Gold Medal for flour at the Paris International Exhibition. Chaff cutting enterprises, established in the 1860s by Edward Clement in Tod Street and C.G. Roediger in Murray Street, flourished in the 1870s.
New businesses were established by Messrs. Sale and Eastwood in King Street in 1878 (rapidly creating a large export market via Port Adelaide), by James McDonald in 1879, and by W. Gilbert & Co. in the early 1880s. These firms benefitted from the extensive hay growing in the districts around Gawler and more than one firm combined extensive farming interests on the Gawler river with their chaff cutting businesses. As with the smaller machinist firms, however, the premises established, although often substantial at the time, did not survive the period of their practical use. 47
A variety of other new manufactories were begun in the 1870s, but although some were temporarily successful, few survived until the end of the century. In 1873 a flax mill was established by Charles Gustav Roediger on Goose Island (off Water Street), Gawler South, in conjunction with his farming and wheat buying interests, but in 1874 this was burnt down and not rebuilt. In 1879 the Gawler and Willaston Lime and Brick Company was established as a limited company, with the aim of making lime and bricks to supply Adelaide and local needs and also of manufacturing flax and olive oil and operating a steam chaff cutting machine. In anticipation of a large Adelaide trade, the company made an agreement with the government for construction of a siding from the northern railway line to the company's premises at Willaston. In its first few years of operation with three lime kilns, the company appeared successful, but it ceased production in 1884 and the line was taken up. A number of similar enterprises succeeded it, suggesting that the Company's closure was due to internal problems rather than lack of demand for lime for building purposes.
A new coachbuilding firm was established by Hill and Sparshott in 1874 and the extensive establishment of James Woods at Willaston, specialising in shafts and plough shares, was taken over by P.B. Woods and James Holt (formerly employed by Martin & Co.) in 1880 and continued to operate into the 1890s 48.
A fourth foundry, the Britannia Foundry, established by James Robinson (a foreman with Martin & Co.) in 1885 at Gawler West, specialised in plough and cultivator shares. Both the Eagle Foundry and the Britannia remained small businesses but gained a steady custom and between them employed some 30 to 40 hands over the next two decades 49.
Also significant to the district was the foundation of Roseworthy College (opened February 1885) and the establishment of a winery there in 1896. The establishment of the College was itself a result of the failures of wheat harvests and evidence of the exhaustion of the land in the early 1880s and the success of the experimental work carried out by Roseworthy and the subsequent improved yields of colonial crops was to benefit Gawler as well as the state generally 50.
The most significant new venture of the 1890s was that of the export of limestone flux from Williamstown to the Port Adelaide Smelting Works. More than 500 tons per week were being carted from Willaston to the Gawler railway station in 1897 51 .
With the expansion of industrial businesses and the increase in population of Gawler and its suburban townships, building flourished and throughout the thirty years from 1871 -1900 and Gawler supported a large number of builders and tradesmen as well as timber merchants, brick makers and lime burners and general merchants. In 1871, 32 "builders, carpenters, timber merchants, sawyers, etc." were recorded in Gawler, while in 1881 there were more than 55 such merchants and tradesmen. John James Peek, who had established himself as a mason in Gawler South in 1860, won the contracts for the Town Hall in 1878 and the Court House in 1881 and for the masonry and plastering of the Old Spot additions in 1880.
The building and carpentry business founded by W.S. Taylor in Tod Street in 1855 (joined by Alexander Forgie, a former employee in 1865, and subsequently operated as Taylor & Forgie) was particularly active (including contracts for the Old Spot and Police Station additions in 1880) and also expanded into undertaking towards the end of this period 52.
The firm of Deland & Tardif (founded in 1855 by B.E. Deland, builder and architect, and operated from Cowan Street) was active until Deland's departure from Gawler in 1884 when Thomas White, a former employee, succeeded to their business. Deland & Tardif were the builders of the Gawler Institute in 1870, Deland supervised the building of the Town Hall by the contractor J.J. Peek in 1878 and William Tardif won the contract for the Gawler Public School in December 1876, for which tenders were also submitted by Taylor & Forgie and James Peek. Commerce and trade generally flourished as a reflection of the success of industrial production and Murray Street continued to be the favourite venue.
The 1860 "General and Commercial Directory for Gawler and Surrounding Districts" recorded 15 carpenters, 12 shoemakers, 9 blacksmiths and a tinsmith, 10 millers (including the three Harrison brothers), 8 butchers, 5 tailors, 8 engineers, 7 storekeepers, 4 saddlers, 4 drapers, 4 cabinet makers, 4 bakers and a wide variety of other tradesmen, as well as 5 hotel keepers, 4 schoolteachers, 4 surgeons, 2 chemists and 2 solicitors 53.
In 1871 Gawler supported more than 70 commercial ventures, including butchers, grocers, bakers, and other shop keepers, and five professional men. In 1880 there were some 100 such enterprises and by 1900 the number was still just over 100, the only significant change being an increase in the number of blacksmiths. The industrial changes of these thirty years were also reflected in the large number of persons designated as fitters, moulders, engineers, etc. by 1900.
Numerous hotels catered to the needs of Gawler residents and through traffic, eight more having been established in this period (the Exchange, Globe, Prince Albert and Commercial in Murray Street, the Mill Inn on the Adelaide Road just south of the South Para river bridge, the Criterion and Railway near the railway station at Gawler West and the Victoria at Willaston) and the township also supported 15 teachers, 5 professional men and 11 owners and drivers of cabs. 54
The expansion of agriculture within South Australia in the 1870s and the subsequent growth of railways promoted the most vigorous period of industry in Gawler. The manufacturing firms of James Martin and the milling companies were the initial beneficiaries of these developments and with their prosperity commerce and other manufacturing ventures were fostered.
In 1874 James Martin took into partnership Fred May and J.F. Martin and the company, now known as James Martin & Co., was subsequently expanded in its operations, winning its first tender for the supply of railway wagons to the government in September 1881. By this time the number of hands (95 when the partnership was formed) had increased to more than 350 and the foundry had moved to new premises in High Street, leaving the agricultural implement manufactory on the Murray Street premises. Further large government contracts were won by the company in the 1880s (including the contract for 47 locomotive engines in May 1888 and there were extensive alterations and improvements to the plant and premises in the early 1890s).
In 1885 Frederick May retired from partnership in James Martin & Co. and established his own firm with his brother Alfred in Gawler West (Bassett Town), east of the railway station. With the experience of the May brothers in general and especially mining machinery, the new firm was in the right position to benefit from the demand created with the opening of the Broken Hill Lead and Silver Mines. May Bros. won their first order from the mines in 1887 and had work almost continuously from them throughout the rest of this period, in addition to the manufacture of agricultural machinery and mining and general machinery for other customers. From their beginnings with five men in October 1885, the firm employed by the end of the 1890s more than 200 hands and expanded the premises substantially in 1897. 55
Ultimately, however, after several decades, the very significant growth and rate of expanding settlement began to decline and by the 1880s it had affected the mills with a decline in the flour trade. The Victoria was idle from the early 1880s and the Albion ceased operations in 1893 when James Hilfers & Co. went into liquidation. The Union continued to operate, but at a much reduced level after Duffield's death, under the management of the Adelaide Milling Co. 56
Many new industrial ventures in this period were unsuccessful. A flax mill on Goose Island (Roediger's) which burned down in 1874 was not re-built. Efforts to establish a large area manufacturing district adjacent to Gawler (north of the North Para) in 1879 were unsuccessful, and the flax, soap and bonecrushing works which had recently been closed by the Board of Health were not re-established. A glucose and starch manufacturer established at the Victoria Flour Mill in October 1881 was short lived, as were cement works begun at Gawler South in 1882. 57.
The impact of the agricultural decline did not impact the local machinery manufacturers as quickly as might have been anticipated. They were able to service for many more years the continuing demand for railway plant and improved agricultural machinery and a new demand for mining machinery created with the opening of the massive B.H.P. lead and silver mines in 1885 and the subsequent opening of the Port Pirie smelters.
Commerce was also not impacted significantly except briefly during the general depression. More than 100 shops, stores and workshops including two saw mills, two brick yards, chaff stores, a number of bakeries and smithies, many drapers, boot-shops and grocers, were operating in Gawler in 1900, heavily concentrated along Murray Street. The businesses were operated most commonly from rented premises and were largely small employers of labour (3-8 persons) but the number of such businesses meant that commerce provided a large source of local employment.
Although there was a considerable change in ownership of stores and businesses throughout this 30 year period, the number and type remained remarkably consistent, as did their concentration on or adjacent to Murray Street. The principal change evident between 1871 and 1900 was an increase in the number of shops and stores in the north ward, taking up previously unused land at the northern end (west side) of Murray Street and along Cowan Street.
The 1901 census indicated that there was still the heavy concentration of employment in local commerce and industry and a large number of self-employed storekeepers, smiths, carpenters, merchants and specialised tradesmen. The population was almost half comprised of persons under 21 and, in the face of the failure of local industry and commerce to expand, this was to have a significant impact on the deployment of the labour force in the next century.58
Following James Martin's death in 1899, his company was carried on by his nephew John Felix Martin, but with the decline in demand for mining machinery and railway rolling stock in the first decades of the 20th century, the company went into liquidation in 1907. After the purchase of the company, including plant and premises, by Henry Dutton in 1908 (still trading as James Martin & Company) there was a renewed period of activity (1909 - 1915) coinciding with the issue of contracts by the State Government for railway rolling stock. This short boom did not, however, last. Subsequently the operations of the company (renamed the Perry Engineering Company following the purchase by Samuel Perry in 1915) were hampered by inadequate orders and intermittent strikes and, in spite of a brief revival in the mid 20s, the company was finally closed in July 1928. Many of the employees were absorbed into the company's Mile End works and although this was preferable to unemployment, it furthered the erosion of Gawler's economic autonomy and independence. Even the smaller foundries, the Britannia and the Eagle, substantially reduced their operations and the number of hands employed after 1928 and the local population of moulders, fitters, etc., were often unable to find work in their own trade until the end of the depression in the mid 1930s 59
May Bros. did not suffer a comparable decline in demand in the first decades of the twentieth century, but both it and the Gawler Implement Company experienced a similar period of disturbance and of labour unrest after 1910 and were caused particular confusion by the fluctuating number of orders influenced by seasonal demands. The Implement Company closed in 1921, turning out its 50 to 60 workers, and May Bros., in spite of reorganisation and a new management in 1925 and considerable orders in 1926, was also closed down in 1927. Its employees had been much reduced from the 300 or more working at the peak of its activity from the 1890s to 1910, but the remaining 50 to 60 workers were to re-enter the labour force at the worst possible time, for the whole of the State was entering into a period of general depression.
The most significant single new venture of this period was into sand mining from the North Para.60 Initially this was conducted in a small way by a number of carters, three of whom were local masons and all of whom had long-standing businesses in Gawler, employing manual labour and horses 61 .
In 1910 the newly formed Gawler Sand Company began lifting sand with the use of machinery, and soon had extensive leases and a large trade with Adelaide, but this declined a few years later. In 1918 the Gawler Corporation became particularly interested in the potential of the sand mining industry in the face of the decline of other industry in Gawler.
Local building was particularly active for the decade between 1909 and 1918. A new industry, Taylor Bros. butter factory, was established at the former cordial factory of D, & R.J. Fotheringham in Water (Eighth) Street and new lime burning operations were begun near Willaston by the Federal Lime Company.
The Union Mill was rebuilt by the Adelaide Milling Company in 1915 and continued in operation. The sand carting businesses established soon after the turn of the century expanded operations and brought new business to the railways and to carters and new income to the Corporation (in the form of licence fees and later royalties) as well as to lessees and employees 62.
A number of new industries were begun early in the 20th century, notably that of fodder compression by John Darling & Son, commenced at the Victoria Flour Mill premises in 1901; new chaff cutting businesses established in 1900 and 1901 respectively by T.A. Waters in Murray Street and George Eime in Lyndoch Road, however the fodder industry provided only an irregular demand for labour because of the fluctuating demands of its largely export market and closed down in 1924. 63
A cordial manufactory was established by W.L. Haydon & Co. in 1905 on the premises of D. & R.J. Fotheringham's earlier cordial factory in Water Street. Also established at this time were a number of wood merchants and cycle makers and repairers, a butter factory established by Taylor Bros. (also on the site of Fotheringham's cordial factory) in 1906; and a clothing factory in Union Street in 1914. With the exception of the clothing factory and the business of Darling & Son, however, none of these businesses regularly employed more than eight staff.
Soon after 1920 this temporary boom came to an end. The colonial and inter-colonial demand for machinery of all types fell off, men had returned from the war of 1914- 18 and were unable to find employment, wages were reduced and strikes were common in the large engineering works. Some local building continued, principally by the churches, but efforts to attract new industry were unsuccessful and between 1915 and 1928, no new industry was attracted to Gawler at all, thus the township was thus all the worse hit by the closures of the three large machinery manufactories in the 1920s 64.
By 1929 unemployment was rising with numbers of people receiving relief and rations from government or private charities 65. During the 1930s, Gawler, like the rest of the country, entered a period of unemployment and industrial recession. Local commerce was affected when one of the oldest industries, Fotheringham's Brewery was taken over by the Adelaide based S.A. Brewing Co. early in 1932, ending nearly a century of association of the Fotheringham family with Gawler.
The Willaston general store of E. Coombe & Son, a family business for sixty years, was sold in 1935 and in 1939 the Albion Mill, used since 1904 as a chaff store by Howell & Knox and later by Theodore Ey, was demolished. In the place of industrial activity were piece-meal public works for the unemployed initiated in the early 1930s by the Gawler Corporation and the Gawler South District Council sup>66.
Efforts by local businesses and residents to revive the agricultural machinery industry led to the formation of the Perry/May Harvesting Co. in 1933, but this attempt to recapture past success failed and was taken over by a large consortium in 1937. A local syndicate formed in 1930, to take over the egg packing and distribution business of W.M. Brown (founded 1902) was more successful and the company continued to operate, as H.T. Brown Ltd., into the 1970s.
The Kapunda firm of Jeffs Bros. commenced milling operations in Gawler in 1933, establishing themselves in a portion of the former May Bros. engineering works between Blanche and Murray (Eighteenth and Nineteenth) Streets. Initially Jeffs Bros did not provide much local employment, many of the workers having been transferred from the firm's Kapunda works, but gradually its activities expanded and more locals were employed. The egg factory of H.T. Brown Ltd. augmented the industrial employment opportunities for women, previously provided only by the Union Street clothing factory, and employed up to 60 women at the peak of activity, although in the 1950s egg packing machinery was introduced, undermining the manual labour requirements 67.
After the depression, a number of new industries were attracted to Gawler, and although these were mainly small enterprises and also frequently originated outside Gawler or quickly passed out of local hands to larger consortiums, they provided some alternative to dependence on the metropolitan area for employment. With this industrial revival and the increased new population from the late 1940s, the local building trades and suppliers also received new impetus, although here too there were significant changes, with the South Australian Housing Trust and later, large building firms, undertaking multiple housing development in designated areas instead of the traditional individual contract on a particular site.
Some further new industry was attracted in the 1940s, including a pressed metal factory in 1940 (initially Hulland's Precision Pressed Metal Co., taken over J.R. Holden of Adelaide in 1945); a wooden box factory (Maygers, established 1946); a new clothing factory (Timer's, on Murray Street at the Bridge Street corner, established 1947; a tile manufactory established at Willaston (Gawler Tiles Ltd.) in 1949; a water pipe-lining firm, Cement Linings Ltd., begun at Willaston in 1950 and transferred to Bella Street the following year; Henderson's Federal Spring Works (opened in Calton Road in 1955); and a concrete masonry factory opened by Jayworth Besser in 1961. In 1941 J. Hallet & Son of Adelaide took over the Paxton Street brickworks formerly operated by A.E. Todd, and the Willaston lime kilns of W. & E. Turner were rebuilt in 1953 and continued to operate until the 1970s 68.
Much new building was begun in the late 1940s, prompted by the housing shortage brought about as a result of new population (including returned soldiers and European migrants) and the stagnation of building activity in the 1920s and 1930s. Initially housing construction was undertaken by the South Australian Housing Trust but a local contractor, C.A.T. Duldig, was used and local tradesmen employed.
The new demand for houses prompted, in addition to the new branch brick works of J. Hallet & Son, a tile manufactory, a fibrous plaster works and a concrete masonry factory, established variously in Gawler and Willaston in the 1940s and 1950s. The number of building contractors also increased rapidly with the housing demand, five being locally registered in 1960 compared with one in 1940 69.
Commercial activity was, however, maintained by its own impetus and by the growing local population and thus hardly faltered during this period, except for an inevitable decline in trading in the worst depression years of 1929 to 1934 and during the war years as a result of government-imposed restrictions and rationing.
After the war extensive residential development in areas near and immediately adjacent to Gawler promoted new commercial activity, while the increasing use of private motor transport opened new opportunities for employment outside Gawler for local residents. Many of the commercial and retailing establishments became branches or agencies of large businesses established in Adelaide or other country centres, rather than the traditional small local firms. The autonomy of Gawler was inevitably eroded and its original face changed by the establishment of new services for an increasing residential population, but the impact of historical development on the character and physical heritage of the present Corporation is still evident.
The opening in 1947 of a new large store by G.J. Coles heralded a significant change in the nature of commercial activity. Shops were demolished to make way for this "supermarket" and although this type of retailing introduced a new range of goods and potential for real competition with the metropolitan commercial centres, much of the social and community spirit of commerce was eroded. More large stores followed and locally-owned businesses have been progressively absorbed as branches or agencies of large retail chains. 70
The opening of extensive new shopping facilities in the City of Elizabeth from 1964 provided Murray Street traders with their biggest challenge in this period, particularly as Elizabeth did not come under the provisions of the Early Closing Act of 1914, but the challenge was met by concerted action among the traders and in 1967 Friday night shopping was introduced.
From the late 1960s, Gawler saw a resurgence of commercial activity and renewed local optimism, prompted partly by a general State economic revival and partly by the attraction of new population to surrounding areas, and reinforced by the extensive sewage and drainage improvements undertaken by Council from 1969. The commercial interests, represented by the Gawler Chamber of Commerce and assisted by the activities of the Council, saw the potential for again making Gawler an important regional commercial centre. In 1969 Eudunda Farmers, Derek Sutch and Duncan & Feist, Chemists, extended their premises and Humphry's was modernised. In 1968 the long established undertaking firm of Taylor & Forgie opened a new chapel in Cowan Street and the Sound and Music Centre was opened in Murray Street.
Many other retail developments followed and the rate of commercial expansion in the early 1970s was such that the traditional Murray Street commercial centre was unable to accommodate demand, particularly the related demand for carparking and new retail commercial activities were forced to expand west of Murray Street, following the redevelopment of that area already begun by the Adult Education Centre buildings from 1967.
In industry, there was in the 1970s some further loss of long established businesses when Jeffs Brothers Ltd. flour mill finally closed down in March 1970 and the Timer clothing factory in Julian Terrace ceased operations in 1976. The mill was, however, converted subsequently into a restaurant and a number of other industries were extended, notably the egg packing and grading operations of H.T. Brown Ltd. (combined with Southern Farmers Co-op and R.J. Finlayson Pty. Ltd. to form Farmer Brown Egg Pty. Ltd. in 1968) and the Wintulich smallgoods factory in Gawler South, extensively expanded from late 1974, employing over 20 people and serving an overseas market 71.
Other industrial and commercial undertakings during this period include major extensions to Eudunda Farmers Co-operative in 1967, construction of five new shops in Walker Place in 1969, the Murray Street Foodland Supermarket in 1973, Tod Street 'Tom The Cheap' supermarket and an autoelectrical and motor rewinding industry in Adelaide Road owned by Mr. Tuckfield, were both established in 1974, Assenders Bakery was opened on Adelaide Road in 1975, the Bank of New South Wales transferred from the western side of Murray Street to new premises on the north-east corner at the intersection of Murray Street and Alton Road replacing a number of old galvanised iron and stone buildings. In 1979 a large supermarket constructed of ashlar pattern blockwork, red brick quoins and bullnosed verandahs was approved by Council for construction on the northwest corner of Cowan Street and Murray Street.
The last hundred years have seen a continuing transformation of Gawler from an economically independent and autonomous township with its own industry and services and a locally employed workforce to a largely dormitory suburb in which more than half of the workforce are employed outside the Corporation boundaries.
Communications with Adelaide were facilitated by increased road and rail services for passengers and goods and the Gawler population increasingly look to the City for employment, social activity and merchandise. At the same time metropolitan home purchasers and expanding industrial development encroached on the cheaper flat land south of Gawler from the late 1940s and provided new population and impetus for the Gawler commercial centre. The ownership of many businesses nevertheless passed out of the hands of Gawler residents and became branches or agencies of larger outside firms and chain stores and supermarkets continue to increasingly undermine the traditional small shops and services 72.
From the late 1960s a number of important new undertakings were initiated by State and Local Government, including the implementation of a major sewerage programme and various drainage and parkland improvements by Council, the completion of a major new education facility and the opening of an automatic telephone exchange. In spite of local drought conditions, the future of Gawler (seen as bleak in the mid-1960s) began to improve. In the 1970s Gawler saw a general commercial resurgence and, with increases in population within surrounding areas, moved towards re-establishing itself as a major regional centre. The rapid development of the commercial sector and the changes caused by an influx of new residents inevitably provoked both new demands and some conflicts within the community 73.
From the 1970s to the present day there has been increasing recognition of the need for long-term planning and controls in order to balance the often contrary claims of conservation and development.
This report has been prepared by the following people:
• Nancy Cromar (Flightpath Architects)
• Deborah Morgan (Flightpath Architects)
• Kate Paterson (Flightpath Architects)
• Douglas Alexander (Flightpath Architects)
The study team would like to acknowledge the assistance of the following people:
• David Petruzzella (Strategic Planner; Town of Gawler)
• Jacinta Weiss (Cultural Heritage Centre Coordinator; Town of Gawler)
• Jane Strange (Senior Development and Strategic Policy Officer; Town of Gawler)
Gawler History Team thanks: Flightpath Architects, Ryan Viney and the Town of Gawler for allowing us access to this important document of Gawler History.
- 41 Hignett & Co. p. 29.
- 42 Loyau G.E. p. 35-41
- 43 Hignett & Co. p. 19
- 44 Whitelock D. p.130
- 45 Hignett & Co. p.19
- 46 Hignett & Co. p. 19-20
- 47 Coombe G.E. p.94-101
- 48 Hignett & Co. p. 20
- 49 Hignett & Co. p.21 50 Coombe E.H. p. 157-159
- 51 Hignett & Co. p. 20
- 52 Hignett & Co. p.21
- 53 Coombe E.H. p. 94-101
- 54 Hignett & Co. p.21
- 55 Whitelock D. p130-132
- 56 Hignett & Co. p.21 -22
- 57 Hignett & Co p. 25
- 58 Hignett & Co. p.22-23
- 59 Hignett & Co. p.24
- 60 Hignett & Co. p.26
- 61 Whitelock D. p.142-143
- 62 Whitelock D. p. 205
- 63 Hignett & Co. p25-26
- 64 Hignett & Co. p.23-24
- 65 Hignett & Co. p24-25
- 66 Hignett & Co. p.25-26
- 67 Hignett & Co. p25-26
- 68 Hignett & Co. p25-26
- 69 Hignett & Co. p25
- 70 Hignett & Co. p25
- 71 Hignett & Co. p24-25
- 72 Hignett & Co. p.26